[JP] Verbs: Go, Come, Return (+Particles: に,で,と,へ)

[Subject] [Time] (に) [Means of Transportation] [Accompanying Person] [Place] へ/に [行きます/来ます/帰ります]
[Subject] wa [Time] (ni) [Means of Transportation] de [Accompanying Person] to [Place] e/ni [ikimasu / kimasu / kaerimasu]

 E.g.,

  • 明日、自転車学校行きます (ashita jitensha de gakkou he ikimasu) =Tomorrow, I will go to school by bicycle.
  • 彼女6時バス帰りました (ie ni kaeru) =She went back home at 6PM with him by bus.
  • へー あの人行きます?どこ? (he- ano hito to ikimasu ka? doko e?) = Eh, You will go with that guy? Where will you go?
  • 一人歩い来ます?これ (hitori de aruite kimasu ka? kare wa) = Will he walk here alone?

The 3 Basic Verbs for Traveling

[Time] に

(ni) indicates a specific point of time when the action takes place. For examples, 7時 (7AM/PM) and 5日 (5th). It is not needed for time with no unspecific point, like 昨 (kinou/yesterday) and 日来週 (raishuu/next week).

[Means of Transportation] で

[Noun] で (de) indicates a means used to take the action. It tells “an instrument used to perform an action” or “how an action is done.” In this context, it is a means of transportable, or a vehicle, e.g., 車で (kuruma de) = by car.

A verb in て-form, which you will later study, works similarly to [Noun]で; it tells how an action takes place. For example, a verb 歩く (aruku) means “walk.” 歩く → 歩いて (aruite) means “by walk.” And 歩いて行く means “go by walk.”

[Accompanying Person] と

[Person] と (to) indicates an accompanying person of the action takes place. For examples, 友達と (tomodachi to) = with my friend, Aさんと (A-san to) = with Mr./Ms. A.

[# of people] で: Note that と indicates “with whom,” not “how many person.” For the number of person, it can be considered as “a means used to do an action,” and thus で is used. For examples, 一人で (hitori de) = by myself alone, みんなで (minna de) = with everyone.

[Place] へ/に

(written as “he”, but spelled “e”) is a particle indicating the direction. It is frequently used with these 3 verbs, and rarely used with other verbs.
(ni) is a particle indicating the destination. When using with other verbs, it means “enter into.”
There are interchangeable for the verbs above.

Learn Vocabulary

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